- Plantation farming is bush or tree farming. It was introduced by the British in the 19th century.
- It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges, etc.
- It is capital intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, irrigation, and transport facilities.
- Plantation agriculture is an export-oriented agriculture. Most of the crops grown in plantation agriculture have a life cycle of more than two years.
- Natural rubber, coconuts, oil palm, tea, cocoa, and coffee are all tree crops and take years to mature, but afterwards they are productive for long periods.
- Plantation agriculture is confined within tropical areas, i.e., both sides of the equator. Plantations exist on every continent possessing a tropical climate.
Some of the plantations like tea, coffee and rubber have a processing factory within the farm itself or close to it.
This type of agriculture has developed in hilly areas of north-eastern India, sub-Himalayan West Bengal and in Nilgiri, Anamalai and Cardamom hills in peninsular India.